[27] Eager to ensure that power remained in his hands, John the Eunuch forced Zoë to adopt Michael, the son of his and Michael IV's sister. Constantine VIII (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Η΄, Kōnstantinos VIII) (960 – 11 November 1028) was reigning Byzantine emperor from December 15, 1025 until his death. Romanus III Argyrus, (born c. 968—died April 11/12, 1034), Byzantine emperor from 1028 to 1034.. Of noble family, he was a prefect of Constantinople when he was compelled by the dying emperor, Constantine VIII, to marry his daughter Zoe and to become his successor. Zoë Porphyrogenita (Greek: Ζωή Πορφυρογέννητη Medieval Greek: [zo'i] "life"; c. 978 – 11 June 1050) was Byzantine Empress from 11 November 1028 until her death in 1050. As he had no sons, Constantine hoped to continue the dynasty by marrying off one of his daughters. Constantine I (306 - 337 A.D.) by Hans A. Pohlsander SUNY Albany Introduction The emperor Constantine has rightly been called the most important emperor of Late Antiquity. Zoë was Porphyrogenita, "born into the purple"; this was the appellation for a child born in the capital to a reigning emperor. She was forcibly tonsured and sworn into a religious order. [5] Theodora defied her father by refusing to marry Romanos, arguing that he was already married – his wife having been forced to become a nun to allow Romanos to marry into the imperial family[10]:465 – and that as third cousins they had too close a blood relationship for marriage to occur. He was a pleasure-loving man who allowed the administration to fall into the hands of others. They took the throne the next day on her father's death. [5][49] Zoë died on 11 June 1050 aged 72. Nicholas Mystikos, Patriarch of Constantinople was the principal regent until March 914. [2] In January 1002 she accompanied Arnulf back to Italy, only to discover when the ship reached Bari that Otto had died, forcing her to return home. Constantine VIII, (born 960/961—died Nov. 12, 1028), Byzantine emperor, coemperor with his brother Basil II from c. 962 to 1025 and sole ruler from 1025 to 1028. He was the younger son of Emperor Romanos II and Empress Theophano. [20] The pair were married on 11 June 1042, without the participation of Patriarch Alexios, who refused to officiate over a third marriage (for both spouses). [33] At an assembly in Hagia Sophia the people escorted a furious Theodora and proclaimed her empress along with Zoë. Constantine VII, called Porphyrogennetos because he was born "in the purple" to a reigning emperor, was Roman Emperor and Caliph of Islam from 912 to 959. [35] After crowning the two empresses the mob stormed the palace, forcing Michael V to escape to a monastery. [42] He was the younger son of Emperor Romanos II and Empress Theophano. [15] Zoë accused her of being part of the conspiracy, and Theodora was forcibly confined in the monastery of Petrion. Constantine VII, like his father Leo VI, was “born in the purple” or porphyrogennetos.The phrase derived from the porphyry, a rare purple-laced marble, that was used in the chamber of the palace at Constantinople where Leo's birth, and many subsequent ones, took place. CONSTANTINE VIII 1025AD Gold Ancient Byzantine Coin w JESUS CHRIST NGC AU i84780. Zoë, aged 50, was married to Romanos Argyros. Constantine VIII Porphyrogenitus (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Η΄, Kōnstantinos VIII) (960 - 11 November 1028) was de jure Byzantine Emperor from 962 until his death. Inferno 19 boasts a high style marked by many apostrophes — including the canto opening — and much metaphoric language; the prostituting of the Church-bride by her Pope-bridegroom picks up and metaphorizes the sexualized language of Inferno 18; reference to the capital punishment of propaginazzione in verses 49-51; see the Commento on Inferno 27 for discussion of the historical … [50], Ruling with Theodora and Constantine IX: 1042–1050, Last edited on 22 December 2020, at 18:07. He was nominal co-emperor for 63 years, successively with his father; stepfather, Nikephoros II Phokas; uncle, John I Tzimiskes; and brother, Basil II. Eight years later, Zoë died aged 72. Mar 14, 2013 - Sisinnius Papacy began 15 January 708 Papacy ended 4 February 708 Predecessor John VII Successor Constantine Personal details Birth name ??? [41] After two months of increasing acrimony, Zoë decided to search for a new husband – thereby denying Theodora the opportunity to increase her influence. The sisters proceeded to administer the empire, focusing on curbing the sale of public offices and on the administration of justice. His main interests lay in legal reforms, in the fair redistribution of land among the peasants, and in the encouragement of art and learning. Constantine XI (Constantine Palaeologus), d. 1453, last Byzantine emperor (1449–53), brother and successor of John VIII John VIII (John Palaeologus), 1390–1448, Byzantine emperor (1425–48), son and successor of Manuel II. Basil died in 1025 when Zoë was 47. [6] Constantine determined that the ruling house would be continued by one of his daughters being married to an appropriate aristocrat. [41] Her next choice was the married Constantine Atroklines, a court official with whom it was rumoured that she had had an affair during the reign of Romanos III. The court began to split, with factions forming behind each empress. [19], In early 1034 Romanos became ill and it was widely believed that Zoë and Michael were conspiring to have him poisoned. Her father ascended the Byzantine throne as Constantine VIII. Gregory VII restricted the use of the title of “Pope” to the Roman bishop. [6] Constantine determined that the ruling house would be continued by one of his daughters being married to an appropriate aristocrat. She used magic charms, amulets, and potions, all without effect. Constantine was crowned co-emperor with his father in 720 CE. Romanos tolerated these and took a mistress himself. [36], Zoë immediately assumed power and tried to force Theodora back to her monastery, but the Senate and the people demanded that the sisters should jointly reign. In the second part (the "Donatio") Constantine is made to confer on Sylvester and his successors the following privileges and possessions: the pope, as successor of St. Peter, has the primacy over the four Patriarchs of Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople, and Jerusalem, also over all the bishops in the world. Basil's father crowned him as co-emperor on 22 April 960, [3] and his brother Constantine (born 960 or 961, eventually to rule as sole emperor Constantine VIII in 1025–1028) in 962 or 963. As women they were unable to exercise any state authority; their only say in this was in choosing, or more likely accepting or not, a husband who would acquire their authority upon marriage. [33] At an assembly in Hagia Sophia the people escorted a furious Theodora and proclaimed her empress along with Zoë. Romanos succeeded Constantine VII as sole emperor upon the latter's death in 959. Dec 29, 2017 - A gold coin of Basil II, emperor of the Byzantine empire (r. 976-1025 CE). was born (genitus) in the Purple (Porphyro) Chamber of the Imperial Palace in Constantinople (905), as it was customary for the legitimate children of reigning emperors.. Psellus reports that her face looked youthful into her sixties. [21] Matthew of Edessa's account has Zoë poisoning Romanos. This action sparked a popular revolt which dethroned him and installed Zoë and her sister Theodora III as joint empresses. Zoë was first married when she was 50 years old at the request of her father to insure stability in the empire. Constantine VIII (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Η΄, Kōnstantinos VIII) (960 – 11 November 1028) was the Byzantine Emperor from 15 December 1025 until his death in 1028. A gold Byzantine nomisma coin depicting Emperor Constantine VII (r. 945-959 CE) and his son and successor Romanos II (r. 959-963 CE). (Redirected from Romanus II) Romanos II or Romanus II (Greek: Ρωμανός Β΄, 938 – 15 March 963) was Byzantine Emperor from 959 to 963. He succeeded his father Constantine VII at the age of twenty-one and died suddenly four years later. Constantine VIII (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Η΄, Kōnstantinos VIII) (960 – 11 November 1028) was reigning Byzantine Emperor from 15 December 1025 until his death in 1028. [5] The next day they summoned the Patriarch Alexios I to officiate at the coronation of the new emperor. [6] Zoë convinced Romanos to appoint one of his own men as the chief of Theodora's household, with orders to spy on her. Romanos III Argyros(Greek: Ρωμανός Γ΄ Αργυρός; 968 – 11 April 1034), or Romanus III Argyrus, was Byzantine Emperorfrom 15 November 1028 until his death. She operated a cosmetics laboratory in her rooms in the palace, where perfumes and unguents were constantly being prepared. True False 8. Zoë later visited her sister and forced her to take religious vows. He died in 952. [22] Although he initially refused to co-operate, the payment of 50 pounds of gold helped change his mind. Constantine II was the first king of Alba, he ruled from the year 900 until his abdication in 943.He was the son of Áed, king of Scots who ruled from 877-878. ... One Exarch excused himself from this task, but his successor carried it out in 653. He was succeeded by his 1st cousin once removed Malcolm in 943 when he abdicated. Constantine and Zoë rejected the idea out of hand when it was revealed that the intended groom, Henry, the son of Conrad II, was only ten years old. Showing Basil and his brother and successor Emperor Constantine VIII. In practice Theodora was the driving force behind the joint administration. Constantine was born in 718 CE as the son and successor to Emperor Leo III, a Syrian diplomat under Justinian II who had gone on to found the Isaurian dynasty which lasted until 802 CE. Despite the machinations of his younger brother Demetrios Palaiologos his mother Helena was able to secure Constantine XI's succession in 1448. [20] On 10 December 1041, Michael IV died, refusing to the last to see his wife who begged that she be allowed to visit him one more time,[28] and his nephew Michael V was crowned emperor. As he had no sons, Constantine hoped to continue the dynasty by marrying off one of his daughters. [40], Theodora and Zoë appeared together at meetings of the Senate and gave public audiences, but it was soon apparent that their joint reign was under strain. Constantine XI. Constantine was born in 718 CE as the son and successor to Emperor Leo III, a Syrian diplomat under Justinian II who had gone on to found the Isaurian dynasty which lasted until 802 CE. [19], Zoë, furious and frustrated, engaged in a number of affairs. [15] Zoë accused her of being part of the conspiracy, and Theodora was forcibly confined in the monastery of Petrion. [7] A second embassy sent in 1001, headed by Arnulf II, Archbishop of Milan,[8] was tasked with selecting Otto's bride from among Constantine's three daughters. $5,198.80. [36], Zoë immediately assumed power and tried to force Theodora back to her monastery, but the Senate and the people demanded that the sisters should jointly reign. [47] The mob was only quieted by the appearance on a balcony of Zoë and Theodora, who reassured the people that they were not in any danger of assassination. She was the second daughter of Constantine VIII and his wife Helena. [21] On 11 April Romanos was found dying in his bath. [46] This led to a popular uprising by the citizens of Constantinople in 1044, which came dangerously close to actually harming Constantine who was participating in a religious procession along the streets of Constantinople. Constantine's position improved after he married his second wife, a niece of Emperor Romanos III Argyros. [9] The emperor's advisors preferred a weak ruler whom they could control and they persuaded him to reject Dalassenos after he had already been summoned to the capital. The Byzantine Coronation Ceremony, according to Emperor Constantine VII, Porphyrogennetos [It is apparent from the acclamations that the ceremony included the coronation of a Senior Emperor and his junior Emperor, according to the ancient system which had been in place since the time of Diocletian. Miscellaneous Edit Today, Tsimiski Street , the main commercial road in the center of Thessaloniki , … [19], Zoë, furious and frustrated, engaged in a number of affairs. He was succeeded by his ward and nephew, Basil II, who had been nominal co-emperor since 960. Constantine Monomachos was the son of Theodosios Monomachos, an important bureaucrat under Basil II and Constantine VIII. The first potential match was the distinguished noble Constantine Dalassenos, the former dux of Antioch. On 19 April 1042 the mob dethroned Michael V in support of not only Zoë, but also Theodora. [33], A delegation headed by Patrician Constantine Cabasilas[34] went to the monastery at Petrion to convince Theodora to become co-empress alongside her sister. She was the second daughter of Constantine VIII and his wife Helena. Attempting to maximise and prolong its effect she had a variety of creams and treatments prepared in the gynaeceum, and was said to have carried out experiments attempting to improve their efficacy. [43] On the following day Constantine was formally proclaimed emperor together with Zoë and Theodora. Emperor Constantine VIII (r. 1025-1028), brother, co-emperor, and successor of Basil II Emperor Romanos III Argyros (r. 1028-1034), 1st husband of Zoe, former Byzantine senator Emperor Michael IV the Paphlagonian (r. 1034-1041) [21] Matthew of Edessa's account has Zoë poisoning Romanos. [31] This treatment of the legitimate heir to the Macedonian Dynasty caused a popular uprising in Constantinople. Psellus reports that her face looked youthful into her sixties. In fact, the gold coin standard would endure until the end of the long-lasting Byzantine Empire, and even after that, other nations in Europe would copy that method long afterward. Constantine was only seven years old when assuming the throne. [5] He proceeded to crown Michael as the new emperor of the Romans, to reign as Michael IV until his death in 1041. Hearing the rumours, Romanos was concerned and confronted Michael, but he denied the accusations. In 336, religious unrest in Armenia and tense relations between Constantine and king Shapur II caused war to break out between Rome and Sassanid Persia. [5] Almost immediately upon marrying Romanos the fifty-year-old Zoë tried desperately to become pregnant. Michael IV was concerned about Zoë turning on him the way she had turned on Romanos,[25] so he excluded Zoë from politics by placing all power in the hands of his brother, the eunuch John the Orphanotrophos. [20] The pair were married on 11 June 1042, without the participation of Patriarch Alexios, who refused to officiate over a third marriage (for both spouses). Henry IV challenged Pope Gregory VII’s right to name bishops in the empire by deposing and replacing the bishop of … [17] This failure to conceive helped alienate the couple, and soon Romanos refused to share the marriage bed with her. Hearing the rumours, Romanos was concerned and confronted Michael, but he denied the accusations. Constantine XI Palaeologus , the last Byzantine emperor (1449–53), killed in the final defense of Constantinople against the Ottoman Turks. Born in May, 905 g. + November 959 g. * * * The fate of Constantine from the very beginning was not so easy. Romanus showed great eagerness to make his mark as a ruler but was mostly unfortunate in his enterprises; and in his … They were married on the same day as the supposed murder, and he was crowned Emperor Michael IV on the following day. Her father became co-emperor, at the age of two, in 962. [40], Theodora and Zoë appeared together at meetings of the Senate and gave public audiences, but it was soon apparent that their joint reign was under strain. Constantine VIII Flavius Porphyrogenitus (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Η΄, Kōnstantinos VIII) (960 – 11 November 1028) was de jure Byzantine Emperor from 962 until his death. In 1041, Zoë was persuaded to adopt her dying husband's nephew, Michael Kalaphates. [9] The emperor's advisors preferred a weak ruler whom they could control and they persuaded him to reject Dalassenos after he had already been summoned to the capital. She flaunted her lover openly and spoke about making him emperor. 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