In 1284, Michael's son and successor Andronikos II Palaiologos visited the blinded and then 33-year-old John IV during a journey in Anatolia, hoping to demonstrate his disapproval with his father's actions. [134], Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty, Encyclopaedia Britannica – Manuel II Palaeologus, "Eine Verfügung des Paläologen Chass Murad-Pasa von Mitte Regeb 876 = Dez./Jan. [41] Manuel had two sons; John Palaiologos, who died young, and Andreas,[42] probably named after Manuel's brother. Sophia and Ivan had several children and numerous descendants. John V married Helena Kantakouzene, daughter of his co-emperor John VI Kantakouzenos and Irene Asanina, on 28 May 1347. Various lineages of Palaialogoi, whose relation to the medieval Palaiologoi and each other are unclear, survived into the modern period and thousands of people, particularly in Greece, still have the last name Palaiologos, or variants thereof, today. They had an unnamed son, who died shortly after birth in 1321. John III's son and successor, Theodore II Laskaris, recalled Michael in 1258 and after they had exchanged guarantees of safety and oaths of loyalty, Michael returned to service within the empire. At the Council of Florence in 1439, Emperor John VIII reaffirmed the Union in the light of imminent Turkish attacks on what little remained of his empire. https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-VI-Cantacuzenus, Fact Monster - People - Biography of John VI, Byzantine Emperor. There is no evidence that the final emperor, Constantine XI, ever repudiated the union achieved at Florence in 1439. Her and Federico II's descendants, with the Gonzaga name, ruled Montferrat until they were supplanted by the House of Savoy, which had also intermarried with the Palaeologus-Montferrat family in the past, in the 18th century. [126] The union was passionately opposed by the Byzantine people and of Byzantine rulers not actually under Michael VIII's control, such as John II Megas Komnenos, Emperor of Trebizond, and Nikephoros I Komnenos Doukas, the ruler of Epirus. The Montferrat cadet branch (descendants of Theodore, son of Emperor Andronikos II) is not shown. [2] Another version of the Palaiologos origin story maintained that they had ancient Roman origin and that they were descended from Romans who had travelled to Constantinople alongside Constantine the Great when the city was founded and designated as the Roman Empire's new capital in 330. [79][82], 'Palaiologos' as a last name continues to survive to this day in various variants. Though the Palaiologos name was not passed on, many of them used the double-headed eagle iconography of Byzantium. Over a century had passed since Constantinople, a city Demetri had never seen, had fallen and yet he retained lingering dreams of the city. …whom the leading light was John Cantacuzenus. Though most of these documents do not appear questionable in of themselves, they have not been authenticated and there are several problems with the overall reconstruction of events and descent. [105][106][39], Because Venice was the only major non-Muslim power in the Eastern Mediterranean, it represented an appealing destination for Byzantine refugees as the empire fell. Notable ancestors includeCharlemagne (747-814), Alfred the Great (849-899), William I of England (1027-1087), Hugh Capet (c940-996). This second origin story is similar to family traditions of other Byzantine noble families, such as the Doukas or Phokas clans, who also used stories of ancient Roman descent to bolster their prestige and somewhat legitimize their claims to the throne of the Byzantine Empire, the Roman Empire's medieval continuation. He was denied the traditional funeral pomps of an Orthodox Emperor. After not receiving any satisfactory offers, Manuel surprised the establishment in Rome by travelling to Constantinople in 1476 and presenting himself before Sultan Mehmed II. As late as the 19th century, after the Greek War of Independence had resulted in the creation of a new independent Greek state, the provisional government of liberated Greece sent a delegation to Western Europe in search of possible descendants of those imperial Palaiologoi that had escaped into exile. [112], A man by the name Andrea Paleologo Graitzas, attested in Venice in 1460, supposedly has living descendants, with numerous people with the last name Palaiologos (or variations thereof) living in Athens today claiming to descend from him. John VII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs Z' Palaiologos; 1370 – 22 September 1408) was Byzantine Emperor for five months in 1390. [95] What happened to Scipione is not known, but Leonidas was executed. [10] After the recapture of the capital and the restoration of the Byzantine Empire, Michael took care to be crowned emperor in Hagia Sophia, as Byzantine emperors had been before the city was lost to the crusaders. During their rule as emperors, the Palaiologoi were not well-liked by their subjects, mostly on account of their religious policy. [1], When Andronikos III died in 1341, his underage son John V Palaiologos inherited the throne. He married Helena Kantakouzene (1333-1396) 28 May 1347 JL . John V Palaiologos, Fossati drawing of mosaic in Hagia Sophia.jpg 1,407 × 1,884; 940 KB John V Palaiologos.jpg 206 × 280; 18 KB John V Roman Emperor.jpg 989 × 498; 180 KB Manouel II Palaiologos (Bahasa Yunani: Μανουήλ Β΄ Παλαιολόγος, Manouēl II Palaiologos) (27 Juni 1350 – 21 Juli 1425) adalah Kaisar Romawi Timur dari 1391 sampai 1425.. Kehidupan. [48] The Romanov dynasty, which succeeded Ivan the Terrible's Rurik dynasty and ruled Russia from 1613 to 1917, were not descended from Sophia, originating as in-laws, rather than descendants, of the Rurikids. John VI Kantakouzenos, Cantacuzenus, or Cantacuzene was a Greek nobleman, statesman, and general. [31] Though Pius II was eager to go through with the idea, and Thomas rode around Italy in the hopes of drumming up support for the venture,[32] no crusade materialized this time either. [115] This family history derives mainly from oral tradition, with only a handful of documents possibly verifying parts of it as true. In 1382, the Kantakouzenoi were also driven out of the Morea (the modern-day Peloponnese) and John V's son Theodore was placed to govern it as the semi-independent Despot of the Morea, an important victory as the region was quickly becoming the most important Byzantine province. يرجى إيراد مصادر موثوق بها. Their genealogy mainly derives from the tombstone of Theodore Paleologus (d. 1636), which lists Theodore's male-line ancestors five generations back, reaching Thomas. [87] Because people with the name live throughout the world and might not even be related in the first place, creating an all-encompassing modern Palaiologos genealogy is next to impossible. Andronikos IV Palaiologos(2 April 1348 – 28 June 1385); 2. [79] Many of the non-imperial Byzantine Palaiologoi were part of the nobility and served as generals or powerful landowners. John VIII Palaeologus, Palaeologus also spelled Palaiologos, (born December 17/18, 1392—died October 31, 1448, Constantinople, Byzantine Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]), Byzantine emperor who spent his reign appealing to the West for help against the final assaults by the Ottoman Turks on the Byzantine Empire.. [135] Ultimately, the delegation's search was in vain and they found no living embodiments of their lost empire. That Andronikos suffered from elephantiasis and epilepsy, and that he died at a young age, makes it unlikely that he married and had a son. The Palaiologan emperors aspired to reunite the Eastern Orthodox Church with the Catholic Church of Rome, to ensure legitimacy in the eyes of the West and in an attempt to secure aid against the many enemies of their empire. [75] Their descent is questionable since there is no surviving contemporary evidence that Andronikos had children. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. [87][88] Some might be genuine descendants of the imperial family as several of the imperial Palaiologoi are recorded as having had illegitimate children; for instance, Theodore II, Despot of the Morea, is known to have had several illegitimate children. After a failed rebellion in 1373, … [1], The Palaiologoi ruled Byzantium at its weakest point in history, and the empire underwent significant economical and political decline. [120], Some nobles with the last name Palaiologos remained in Ottoman Constantinople, and even prospered in the immediate post-conquest period. Behold how our merciful and omniscient Lord has managed to preserve the integrity of our holy Orthodox faith and to save (us) all; he brought forth out of nothing the powerful Empire of the Ottomans, which he set up in the place of our Empire of the Romaioi, which had begun in some ways to deviate from the path of the Orthodox faith; and he raised this Empire of the Ottomans above every other in order to prove beyond doubt that it came into being by the will of God .... For there is no authority except that deriving from God. According to several later oral traditions, the family had originated in Italy, supposedly in the city of Viterbo. The situation was so dire that Manuel left Constantinople to travel around Western Europe asking for further aid against the Ottomans, visiting Italy, France and England. [115], Another family which claims to descend from the old imperial dynasty are the Paleologu of Romania, claiming to be the descendants of an otherwise unattested son of Theodore II Palaiologos, Despot of the Morea, called Emanuel Petrus (Manuel Petros in Greek). [14] Ultimately, the siege was resolved peacefully by Manuel through signing a peace treaty with Bayezid's son and successor, Mehmed I, in 1403, which among other things returned the city of Thessaloniki, captured by the Ottomans in 1387, to Byzantine rule. [43] Manuel's son Andreas converted to Islam and might have served as an Ottoman court official. The origins of the family are unclear. [1], In the 12th century, the Palaiologoi are mainly recorded as members of the military aristocracy, not occupying any administrative political offices. The Byzantine Empire had fallen and the rulers of the Morea, Thomas and Demetrios, appeared more interested in their own rivalry than in organizing resistance against the Ottomans. They had at least six children -- four sons and at least two daughters.Their known children include: 1. In 1394, Manuel II ceased to pay tribute to the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I, who responded by besieging Constantinople. Irene Palaiologina (c. 1349 – after 1362), who married her first cousin Khalil of Bithynia. The repeated attempts by the emperors to reunite the Greek Orthodox Church with the Roman Catholic Church, and thus place the Byzantine church in submission under the Papacy, was viewed as heresy and treason. John VI Cantacuzenus, (born 1292—died June 15, 1383, Mistra, Byzantine Empire), statesman, Byzantine emperor, and historian whose dispute with John V Palaeologus over the imperial throne induced him to appeal for help to the Turks, aiding them in their conquest of the Byzantine Empire. In 1253, Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes accused him of plotting against the throne, though Michael escaped the accusation without punishment following a trial by ordeal of holding a red-hot iron. [44] He is last attested in the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566)[45] and is not believed to have had children of his own. [15], There was peace between the Palaiologans and the Ottomans until 1421, when Mehmed I died and Manuel retired from state affairs, to pursue scholarly and religious interests. Andronikos III was first married, in 1318, with Adelheid of Brunswick, daughter of Henry I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg; she died in 1324. [23], In January 1459, rivalry between the brothers broke out into civil war as Thomas, with the aid of some of the Albanian lords in the Morea, seized a series of fortresses held by Demetrios. The delegation visited places in Italy where Palaiologoi were known to have resided and even came to Cornwall, where Theodore Paleologus had lived in the 17th century. Even in this state, the empire, famous for its frequent civil wars, was unable to stay united. According to the genealogies, Rogerio would have been born about 1430 and was supposedly sent to Alfonso the Magnanimous of Aragon and Naples as a hostage to guarantee some treaty with the Byzantines. Helena had already been married to Lazar Branković, the Despot of Serbia, but the three younger children, and Thomas's wife Catherine Zaccaria, and a retinue of other refugees, accompanied him as he escaped to the Venetian-held island of Corfu. [19], Constantine XI's reign would prove to be brief. John VII Palaiologos or Palaeologus was Byzantine emperor for five months in 1390, from 14 April to 17 September. By 1354 Cantacuzenus was anxious to continue his rule and crowned his son, Matthew, co-emperor. [20] In an effort to extort money from Mehmed, Constantine implicitly threatened to release Orhan Çelebi, Mehmed's cousin and the only other known living member of the Ottoman dynasty (and as such a potential rival to Mehed), who was held prisoner in Constantinople. [91] As such, it is possible that Allatius had access to earlier documents, now lost, which would have proven the legitimacy of the Pesaro line. [124], During most of their tenure as Byzantine emperors, the Palaiologan dynasty was not well-liked by their subjects. Their known children include: John had no imperial ambitions of his own and refused to be crowned co-emperor, despite being offered the opportunity by Andronikos III Palaiologos several times. [56], The marriage of Zoe/Sophia (Thomas's second daughter) to Ivan III of Moscow served to strengthen Moscow's claim to be the "Third Rome", the ideological and spiritual successor to the Byzantine Empire. Allatius gives the sons of Thomas as "Andrea, Manuele and Ioanne". [79] The refugees were helped in that many in Western Europe would have been unaware of the intricacies of Byzantine naming customs; to Western Europeans, the name Palaiologos meant the imperial dynasty. [62] Since Yolande was second-in-line to the throne of the March of Montferrat, the marriage had the unexpected result of creating the possibility that a Byzantine prince might inherit Montferrat. [120] The presence of double-headed eagle symbols in the Spirito Santo church has been used as an argument in the past, but this symbol was not unique to the Palaiologoi, being used as a symbol by other families as well (both Byzantine and Western). John VI Cantacuzenus, (born 1292—died June 15, 1383, Mistra, Byzantine Empire), statesman, Byzantine emperor, and historian whose dispute with John V Palaeologus over the imperial throne induced him to appeal for help to the Turks, aiding them in their conquest of the Byzantine Empire. In his will from 1372, John II claimed that Andronikos II's deposition in 1328 by his grandson Andronikos III (John V's father) had been unlawful and thus disqualified Andronikos III and all his heirs from the legitimate line of succession to the throne of Byzantium. On 1 January 1259, Michael was proclaimed as co-emperor at Nymphaion, probably without John IV being present. [1], In contrast to these ancient and prestigious origin stories, the Palaiologoi probably actually originated relatively late in Anatolia, possibly in the Anatolic Theme. [32] Thomas died on 12 May 1465 and shortly thereafter Zoe, Andreas and Manuel arrived in Rome. He made his own son Matthew Kantakouzenosa co-emperor in 1353. [40] Andreas's brother Manuel died in Constantinople at some point during the reign of Mehmed II's son and successor Bayezid II (r. John V was initially victorious, imprisoning and disinheriting Andronikos IV and appointing a younger son, Manuel II Palaiologos, as his successor instead. He regained Constantinople in February 1347 with Turkish help, and was crowned co-emperor with John V in May. John had no imperial ambitions of his own, and refused to be crowned co-emperor despite being offered the opportunity by Andronikos III Palaiologos several times during the reign of latter. Some, such as Theophilos Palaiologos, lost their lives in the battle, whereas others were taken prisoner and executed. [102] Theodore left Barbados to work as a privateer, serving aboard a ship called Charles II, and died at A Coruña, Spain in 1693. John V was the son of Emperor Andronikos III and his wife Anna, the daughter of Count Amadeus V of Savoy by his second wife Maria of Brabant. 1471-72", "Crusading and Matrimony in the Dynastic Policies of Montferrat and Savoy", "Surviving Exile: Byzantine Families and the Serenissima 1453–1600", "Organo di informazione del Circolo Culturale "I Marchesi del Monferrato" "in attesa di registrazione in Tribunale, "Sophia of Montferrat, or The History of One Face", "A Worthless Prince? [118] The "Rogerio Greco" mentioned as a judge in 1441 cannot be identified with the supposed progenitor of the Paleologo Mastrogiovanni line since it would have been impossible for him to have been a judge at only 11 years old. [17] Demetrios was unhappy with his subordinate position and assaulted Constantinople in 1442, with Ottoman help, in an attempt to seize the city and become emperor himself. 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