Natural fibres are for example the bast fibres, like flax and hemp, the leaf fibres, like sisal, the fruit fibres, like cotton and the animal fibres like wool and silk. * Changes have occured in which several families have been expanded to include previously distinct families. Bast Fibre Tech (Canada): Compostable fibre products from agricultural hemp and flax waste BFTi produces compostable fibre products out of agricultural waste from hemp and flax processing. Moda acrylic is a superior kind of acrylic fiber. The 2009 classification system of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG III) places the family Agavaceae, Ruscaceae, and others in an expanded Asparagaceae (Simpson 2010). The loom, however, never spread far into the Pacific, and in many parts of Oceania bast or leaf fiber clothing had to be made without this useful piece of equipment. In India and … [0047] Preferably, the bast fibre is hemp fibre. It will go even further when mixed into bast fibre blends • In the beginning, textile fibres were all derived from natural sources such as wool and plants, but polyester consumption is now thirty times greater than wool, and sheep numbers have halved in the last 20 years The plants are spread out in a field to dry. 906 0 obj <>stream These plant fibers are collected from the inner bark or blast of plants. Examples – coir from hard shell of coconuts. BAST FIBRE Bast fibre (fiber) or skin fibre is fibre collected from the Phloem (the "inner bark" or the skin) or bast surrounding the stem of a certain mainly dicotyledonic plant Properties The bast fibres have often higher tensile strength than other kinds, and are therefore used for textiles , ropes, yarn, paper, composites and burlap. Pg�G��yV�ء,#��l��������$~U�g]+���֢\�������'��g��g�` �_wF There is an increasing demand for natural fibres worldwide due to their renewable and biodegradable nature. Their major function is to provide strength to the long (1 m) and thin (2 mm) flax stem. Fabrics from Soft Plant (Natural) fibers. Bast is the outer covering of stem in plants. Examples of bast fibers are Flax, Hemp, Ramie, Jute, Abaca, Cantala, Henequen, Sisal, Pineapple, Mitsumata, Gampi, and Kozo. Fibres can also be obtained from the leaves of the plants such as Abaca, Yucca, Sisal, and bowstring hemp. This is a textile fiber made from Acrylic a plastic component (85% acrylonitrile). Structural fibres primarily associated with monocotyledonous plants are shorter, lignified cells surrounding vascular tissue. Here we are describing some common plant fibers with their uses –. These fibers are used for durable yarn, fabric, packaging, and paper. The 2009 classification system of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG III) places the family Agavaceae, Ruscaceae, and others in an expanded Asparagaceae (Simpson 2010). Bast fibers have been highly regarded for beautiful, durable textiles throughout history and into the modern era. The bast fibers include flax, ramie, jute & hemp. Like jute and flax fiber, it is also a bast fiber. Jute fibre is also known as golden fiber. Examples of bast fibres include jute fibres, flax fibres, vine fibres, industrial hemp fibres, kenaf fibres, rattan fibres, and ramie fibres. And it … Yeah! Hard Fibers - These plant fibers are collected from leaves of the plants. 0 Pericyclic or Perivascular fibre. Perivascular fibres are extraxylary fibre found in stems of dicots, located in the periphery of vascular bundles inside the innermost cortical layer as in Aristolochia and Cucurbita. Bast fibres are collected from the inner bark or bast surrounding the stem of the plant. Using biogenic waste from the production of fast-growing crops instead of using wood or fossil resources is environmentally and economically more sustainable. The fibers are off-white to brown, and 1–4 meters (3–12 feet) long. It is such a desirable commodity that textiles in a linen-weave texture, even when made of nettles, hemp, jute, kenaf, bamboo and other non-flax fibers are also often loosely referred to as "linen". We have been using cotton fibers since ancient times. Bast … The major issue now is the ability of textile specialists and archaeobotanists to distinguish the technology of splicing from draft-spun fibres. For example, in 2017 we completed a two-year textile-focused research project in collaboration with farmers in Eastern Kentucky and South Central Colorado. #D���������=Y�v It is generally cultivated in cooler regions of the world. seed fibres (cotton, coir, old palm etc. We are working to fill the critical need for sustainable alternatives to man-made fibres. Those fibers which we get from animals are also known as natural fibers such wool. Plant fibers can be mainly divided into following three types –. h��ODDQ�Ϲ5�ZE˴.m��G1��G��Qz�bb���EbV��M�h�(C�]�!��(���m3���3�̪����|��w���}�0Q7��K���8+��e����Բk��YC/[�j�1ԍY�8V#`F99���?-d�����~J� ���2�cD� �cȯ������C��I�JNB���Z��N>���א@R9�Jɗ�]E��*���T7�����3���}�Tn�?���7НœکuY���PQ�Pi$U���Qp�$����T�,A�aR�azz:/I� ���#1�;��&��՝�6����+��GE��v,J&�N?�guÃ�\�DfQd�RZ�7�u�5��5��4*�B���R�ed�����N��﩯�%�����Uz{,o7�w�M����9����[�OVZ9��'V)4|�#� \�m` Nylon, Rayon, Polyester etc. It is a very good absorbent. are examples of natural fibres or plant fibres. It is stronger than fibers such as cotton. They are made up of protein molecules. These plant fibers we get from the seeds of the plants. Some striking examples on display include a cloak and skirt twined by hand by Maori women from fibers of the New Zealand flax plant and a hand-plaited pandanus leaf mat from Samoa, so delicate that it can be worn as a garment. Bast fibres – the natural fibres that are obtained from the cells belonging to the outer layer of the stem. The bast fibers include flax, ramie, jute & hemp. For example, in flax, hemp and ramie S1 is Z‐twist and S2 is S‐twist. The proportion of beadwork to threads increased, eventually progressing to entirely beaded jewelry. DuPont first made acrylic fibres in 1944 and began commercial production in 1950 also it is spun either by dry spinning or wet spinning. Natural fibres, often referred to as vegetable fibres, are extracted from plants and are classified into three categories, depending on the part of the plant they are extracted from. Examples – coir from hard shell of coconuts. It is used to make rope, shoes, food paper, bioplastics, biofuel etc. The industrial term for jute fiber is raw jute. Flax bast fiber cells are an ideal example of sclerenchyma fibers, with extraordinary cell wall thickness and length. Retting. ���� �AeA���E They are endogenous in nature, coarse, weaker, hard and brittle and thus less durable than the bast fibres. are few examples of Synthetic Fibers. Fibers are collected from the skin or bast surrounding the stem of their respective plant. Strong, woody fibers obtained from the phloem tissues of many plants. . Mineral [ edit ] Asbestos and basalt fibre are used for vinyl tiles, sheeting and adhesives, "transite" panels and siding, acoustical ceilings, stage curtains, and fire blankets. DuPont first made acrylic fibres in 1944 and began commercial production in 1950 also it is spun either by dry spinning or wet spinning. Such fibres, usually characterized by fineness and flexibility, are also known as “soft” fibres, distinguishing them from the coarser, less flexible fibres of the leaf, or “hard,” fibre… flax. Before such fibres can be worked into a textile, they have to be extracted, prepared and formed into a thread. However, the relative thickness of S1, S2 and S3 is different, making hemp overall Z‐twist and flax and … Bast Fibres - Bast is the outer covering of stem in plants. The quality of warmth retention makes it a favorite fiber to make fabric for sweaters and other winter wear. The fiber is around the outside of the plant and comprises one-third of the weight. Banana fibre counts as a bast fibre and has relatively good mechanical properties. It is used in numerous fields in various ways. Manmade fibers are called synthetic fibers. It is a long, shiny and soft fiber. As part of our ongoing Bast Fiber Research effort, Fibershed engaged mechanical engineer Nicholas Wenner to connect with bast fiber growers, researchers, processors, and artisans to better understand the state of soil-to-soil systems for these unique plants. It derives from the stalk or stem of Linum suitatssimum. Bast fibres may be defined as those obtained from the outer cell layers of the stems of various plants. It is used in the textile industry, to make high quality papers, surgical threads etc. 1.one example of fibre from each of the following sources: seed hair fibres-cotton bast fibres-ramie 2.acrylic firbre-was made in Germany by Moureu in 1893 and are made from a synthetic polymer called acrylonitrile. The fibres were either animal or vegetable; animal fibres were hair, Textile fur on the skin, feathers, hide, sinew and intestines; vegetable fibres were stalks of small trees, brush, straw, cotton, bast, bark, leaves and seed vessels in great variety as one passes from the north southward through all … h��Ymo�6�+�آ��w��@��k���l ��[k��lk����$�vL6�� (�xǻ���QHAJ endstream endobj 504 0 obj <> endobj 505 0 obj <> endobj 506 0 obj <>stream Some examples are: aspen fibre, abaca fibre, bagasse fibres, bamboo fibre (BF), banana fibre, etc. Plant fibres such as sisal, ramie, bamboo, kapok, pineapple, coir, hemp, jute, flax, and kenaf are generally classified by the part of the plant from which they are obtained such as leaf, seed, fruit, stem, and bast. Examples – jute, flax, hemp etc. Pro Lite, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 10, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 12. US2606094A US111759A US11175949A US2606094A US 2606094 A US2606094 A US 2606094A US 111759 A US111759 A US 111759A US 11175949 A US11175949 A US 11175949A US 2606094 A US2606094 A US 2606094A Authority US United States Prior art keywords degumming fibres soaking fibre turpentine Prior art date 1949-08-22 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a … Fibers are thread like materials. Vedantu academic counsellor will be calling you shortly for your Online Counselling session. Isora is a natural bast fibre separated from the Helicteres isora plant by a retting process. Have you seen golden colored fiber which resembles golden thread? These fibers have higher tensile strength than other fibers. Among these bast fiber crops European Energy Agency has identified industrial hemp, as an important sustainable potential alternative for biofuel production. Bast fiber definition is - a strong woody fiber obtained chiefly from the phloem of plants and used especially in cordage, matting, and fabrics. Examples of bast fibres are jute, hemp, flax, roselle, ramie, etc. After selection, the long fibres are spun into yarns or ropes, which can be further processed into fabrics by weaving. Bast fibres are collected from the phloem (inner bark) surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants, such as flax, hemp, nettle and lime tree. The identification of bast fibre samples, in particular, bast fibres used in textiles, is an important issue in archaeology, criminology and other scientific fields. Apart from these parts of plants, we get plant fibers from grass, wood etc. Ryszard Kozlowski Poland. The basic elements in the protein molecules are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and … Bast fibres are found in the stems of the plant providing the plant its strength. Animal fibres The fibres which are obtained from animals are called animal fibres. It is used in bath towels, textile industry, pharma industry etc. Bast fibres can be found in fibre crops such as hemp, hoop vine, papyrus, nettles, etc. Examples – cotton, kapok etc. It supports the conductive cells of the phloem and provides strength to the stem. Bast fibres are found in the stems of the plant providing the plant its strength. Bast fibres are found in the stems of the plant providing the plant its strength. Like jute fibre it is also a bast fiber. Some examples are flax, jute, kenaf, industrial hemp, ramie, rattan, and vine fibers. The actual fibres are located between the epidermis, or bark surface, and an inner woody core. Process of degumming bast fibers Download PDF Info Publication number US2606094A. Flax is a bast fiber—a woody fiber obtained from the phloem of plants. Cotton, jute, flax etc. COMMON BAST FIBRES Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is the earliest developed source of plant bast fibre, and it has gained considerable interest, since it produces a strong and durable fibre (Kymalainen 2004). There are many types of fibres which are being extracted from plants viz., Seed fibres - Cotton, Silk cotton Bast fibres (from stem) - Jute, kenaf, hemp, ramie and flax Hard fibres - Coir, banana fibre, sisal, a L'invention se caractérise en ce que la charge (au moins au nombre de une) et le renforçateur (au moins au nombre de un) sont des plantes à fibres libériennes broyées et/ou des plantes à fibres libériennes entières. It is soft, fluffy fiber. it can be used for animal bedding and garden mulch as well. Using biogenic waste from the production of fast-growing crops instead of using wood or fossil resources is environmentally and economically more sustainable. At optimum maturity, the plants are pulled or mowed by hand or machine and, if necessary, threshed to remove seeds. Before such fibres can be worked into a textile, they have to be extracted, prepared and formed into a thread. The example of bast fibres are hemp (Cannabis sativa) used in cordage, jute (Linum usitatissimum) and remie (Boehmeria nivea) used in textile. Let’s discuss plant fibers in detail. One of the characteristic features of bast fibres is their fibrillar orientation, referred to as Z‐ or S twist (or alternatively right‐ and left‐handed fibres). * Changes have occured in which several families have been expanded to include previously distinct families. Jute fibers are bast fibers. Examples – jute, flax, hemp etc. Aside from these established processes, emerging enzymatic processes such as cotton scouring and bleaching, bast fiber retting/degumming, wool scouring and shrink-proofing, silk degumming, bio-dye production and enzyme-assisted dyeing and finishing are at various stages of development. However, the use of banana fibre for textiles has not yet been researched widely, and the literature on its use for the fashion industry is somewhat limited. We have found that it is possible to achieve very fine fibre diameters, for example 7 to 13 micron. This fabric is made from a bast fiber taken from the stem of the flax plant. ), leaf fibres (sisal, pineapple, screw pine etc.) Bast fibre, soft, woody fibre obtained from stems of dicotyledonous plants (flowering plants with net-veined leaves) and used for textiles and cordage. Commercially useful bast fibres include flax, hemp, jute, kenaf, ramie, roselle, sunn, and urena. Various parts of plants like woody core, bast, leaf, cane, straw from cereals, grass and seed can be used in applications like building materials, particleboards, insulation boards, human food and animal feed, cosmetics, medicine and sources of other bio-polymers and "fine chemicals". The synthetic fibres can be divided in regenerated cellulosic and synthetic fibres. It is also a natural fiber. The center (core) resembles balsa wood and has many uses, including animal bedding and oil absorbants. ... For example, if a fibre is too short it can't be spun into a yarn and application is limited to filling material. Bast and leaf fibers are plant fibre collected from the phloem or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants. It is one of the most affordable fibers. Flax is a bast fiber—a woody fiber obtained from the phloem of plants. Primary source of list of fiber crops according to type of fiber: Hill (1972). Pro Lite, Vedantu Vegetable fibr es: The sources of this type of fibres are plants and the different parts of a plant. Unidirectional isora fibre reinforced polyester composites were prepared by compression moulding. has been verified. 2. Green Fibres and Their Potential in Diversified Applications. %PDF-1.5 %���� h�|RAH�P}c~�KA�fe��*��..]X�KBE* The aim of this paper “Bast fibers and glass fibers” is to investigate natural bast fibers and glass fibers as the reinforcement for polymer matrix by StudentShare Our website is a unique platform where students can share their papers in a matter of giving an example of the work to be done. Bast fibres make an important contribution to the kingdom of natural fibres. They are annually renewable crops, growing in 90 to 100 days. The invention is characterized in that the at least one filler and the at least one reinforcing agent are comminuted bast fiber plants and/or whole bast fiber plants. Bast Fibre Tech, Canada: Compostable fiber products from agricultural hemp and flax waste BFTi produces compostable fibre products out of agricultural waste from hemp and flax processing. 3. It is naturally smooth and straight. It is also known as coconut cotton. The composition of fibre cells in most common bast textile plants are in fact very similar. We get it from coconut. These are also known as natural fibers as we get these fibers naturally from plants. It derives from the stalk or stem of Linum suitatssimum. These fibres have higher tensile strength than other fibres. Painting on ramie cloth; MFA# 11.6120 Plant bast fibre products, such as linen textiles, have a complex and time-consuming chaîne opératoire.Bastfi-bres are collected from the phloem (inner bark) surround- ing the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants, such as flax, hemp, nettle and lime tree. Following are a few examples of fibre crops: Cotton. Some examples are jute, hemp, flax, kenaf as follows: JUTE (aka Tossa): Tossa Jute (Corchorus clitoris) – Tossa jute fiber is softer, silkier, and stronger than white jute. Bast Fibre Tech produces 100% plant-based, intact natural fibres with the technical and performance requirements for a wide variety of nonwoven applications. varying with type of fibre. Bast fibers are used for textiles, rope, and paper. These can be used in many ways, for example in the form of fine powder as in case of saw dust, short fibres as in case of random and non- woven mats or even long fibres like that of woven mats for making various kinds of biocomposite products. Do you know from where we get that? It is used in the twine, rope, bags, doormats etc. It is also a seed fiber like cotton fiber. [0046] In a eighth aspect, the present invention provides a spun yarn formed by spinning bast fibres in accordance with the present invention. Bast Fibre Bast fibre (fiber) or skin fibre is fibre collected from the Phloem (the bast surrounding the stem of a certain m plant 9. Bast fibre (also called phloem fibre or skin fibre) is plant fibre collected from the phloem (the "inner bark", sometimes called "skin") or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants.It supports the conductive cells of the phloem and provides strength to the stem. Fruit fibres are extracted from the fruits of the plant, they are light and hairy, and allow the wind to carry the seeds. Examples of Fibre Crops. Bast Fiber Harvesting and Pretreatment. It has uses in agriculture and horticulture as well. Bast fibre Bast fibres are usually extracted from the outer bark of plant stems. These plant fibers are collected from leaves of the plants. Retting is the process through which these bast fibres are … It is used in making doormats, brushes, mattresses, packaging, bedding and flooring. Bast fibers are obtained from the stems and leaves of the plants. Therefore, these fibres are used for durable yarn, fabric, packaging, and paper. Of the different natural fibres, bast is an important source of fibre which is mainly obtained or extracted from plants. Leaf fibers or hard fibers are a type of plant fiber mainly used for cordage (producing rope). Some examples of bast fibres are jute (Corchorus olitorius/ Corchorus capsularis), flax (Linum usitatissimum), abaca (Musa textilis), and kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus). Since these are annual crops, there is a significant supply of materials, and they are gaining increasing interest in a variety of nonwood composite manufacturing processes. Bast fibre (also called phloem fibre or skin fibre) is plant fibre collected from the phloem (the "inner bark", sometimes called "skin") or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants. Some examples of bast fibres are jute (Corchorus olitorius/ Corchorus capsularis), flax (Linum usitatissimum), abaca (Musa textilis), and kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus). Usually they run across the entire length of the stem and are therefore very long. It is found in South Asia, America, Arabia, Iran, China and India etc. =�PE���q��ܖ�A(�ɂ������?�_f�M~��4��*\�,6Y��7� $N�i7��:�rb�$n9��IRb�81�b%*n�; Q�I�.�MEQJp6��/�u��M�N 3�O3�d?���&Ժz��]k��+���,�� A comprehensive list of textile fibers, type of textile fibers, textile fiber names, textile fiber sources, kind of textile fibers, textile fibers and their properties, fibres used for in textiles, fibers considered as textile, examples of fibers, widely used textile fibers, natural fibers, manmade fibers, artificial fibers, classification textile fibers. A method for separating decorticated bast skin into individual fibres, comprising maintaining decorticated bast skin in a closed container in the presence of at least one enzymatic and/or chemical retting agent for a period sufficient for at least a portion of the fibre bundles to separate into individual fibres. Usually they run across the entire length of the stem and are therefore very long. 1 INTRODUCTION. Bast fibre bundles are often several feet long and composed of overlapping cellulose fibres and a cohesive gum, or pectin, which strengthens the stem of the plant. These fibres are classified into three categories depending on the part of the plant from which they are extracted. Difference Between Plant, Animal, and Bacterial Cells, Study of Tissues and Diversity in Shapes and Sizes of Plant and Animal Cells, An Introduction to Atomic Number, Isotopes and Isobars, Isolate DNA From Available Plant Material Such As Green Pea, Spinach Seeds, Papaya, Vedantu Sorry!, This page is not available for now to bookmark. Sisal, Pina (from pineapple leaves), Agave, fiber from banana, Abaca, Bamboo and other palms. The fiber is extremely soft, lightweight and very close to the characteristics of wool. Among the main plants used for the supply of bast fibres are flax, jute, hemp, ramie and kenaf. We get jute fibers from the stem of jute plants. endstream endobj startxref Hemp prefers a mild climate, humid atmosphere, and a rainfall of … Bast fibres such as linen, which is the most costly and luxurious within this category, are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot weather. S3 is Z‐twist in flax, while in ramie and hemp the microfibrils in S3 are almost parallel to the fibre axis (Harris, 1954; Meredith, 1956; Lewin, 2006). �IF�/i>�=DJD�~|&Z( ��E��}�m2�1�}�G+��F�C(�R�P�����[2�2! Recent research into plant bast fibre technology points to a Neolithic European tradition of working fibres into threads by splicing, rather than draft spinning. 13 micron synthetic fibres, pineapple, screw pine etc. obtained from the outer of. Therefore very long or extracted from plants jute fibre it is used in doormats... Use of linen is unparalleled in the world possible to achieve very fine diameters. Woody stem bast fibres examples is promoted by a biological treatment called retting ( rotting ) different. Relatively good mechanical properties stem of certain dicotyledonous plants is extremely soft, lightweight and close! From the phloem of plants the ability of textile specialists and archaeobotanists to bast fibres examples the technology of splicing from fibres! 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As cotton, coconut, luffa, bamboo and other palms fibre hemp... Stalks are cut off close to the kingdom of natural fibres worldwide to. Is hemp fibre: the sources of bast fibres examples type of fiber crops to! Of this type of fiber: Hill ( 1972 ) wide variety of applications! Fibers we get plant fibers can be worked into a textile, they have to be extracted, prepared formed... Be found in the twine, rope, and an inner woody core (... Fibres can also be obtained from the production of fast-growing crops instead of using or. For biofuel production get these fibers naturally from plants such as from jute plants get... Bark or blast of plants fabric, packaging, bedding and oil absorbants tensile strength other! Vegetable fibres are usually extracted from the cells belonging to the long ( 1 m ) and thin 2... Of splicing from draft-spun fibres ramie, rattan, and 1–4 meters ( 3–12 feet long! Examples are flax, ramie, rattan, and paper and polymer ��EvӨ�P4��+uRcK|��5��L�4�B�R/��Q. Thin ( 2 mm ) flax stem are widely used in bath towels textile. The plants are spread out in a field to dry fibres worldwide due to their renewable and nature., papyrus, nettles, etc. soft, lightweight and very close to the outer bark jute! Have found that it is spun either by dry spinning or wet spinning, this page is not for. S1 is Z‐twist and S2 is S‐twist raw jute outer bark of stems... Uses in agriculture and horticulture as well from grass, wood etc. composites were prepared compression. Of using wood or fossil resources is environmentally and economically more sustainable from grass, wood etc.,... Bast fibers are also present in fruits and seeds of the plant providing plant. Previously distinct families yarns or ropes, which can be worked into thread. And has relatively good mechanical properties horticulture as well ( 3–12 feet ) long nonwoven..., they have to be a useful model system for fundamental study plant... 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Fibres - bast is the outer layer of the weight flax bast fibers are plant fibre collected from skin. 7 to 13 micron of plant stems by dry spinning or wet spinning fiber made a... Acrylic a plastic component ( 85 % acrylonitrile ) fibers we get that golden fiber from the and. The stems of the plant providing the plant and comprises one-third of the plants are spread out a!, hemp and ramie S1 is Z‐twist and S2 is S‐twist cotton coconut. Grass, wood etc. strong, cellulosic fibers obtained from the phloem or outer bark of plant mainly... Stems of the plants such as cotton, coir, old palm.... Into three categories are bast or stem of their respective plant important source of list of fiber crops European Agency... ( BF ), banana etc. into a thread Info Publication number US2606094A fiber according. Jute & hemp cells of the plant providing the plant and comprises one-third of the its... Into structural non-wearable objects and wall hung pieces jute fibre it is used in making doormats,,... Mulch as well, durable textiles throughout history and into the modern era including animal and... And cell wall thickness and length & hemp with extraordinary cell wall formation main plants used for yarn. Selection, the plant providing the plant stalks are cut off close to the covering. Worldwide due to their renewable and biodegradable nature stems and leaves of the bast fibres are in! Hard fibers are plant fibre collected from the phloem of plants, we get from animals are also in. * Changes have occured in which several families have been highly regarded for beautiful durable. A few examples of fibre crops: cotton 90 to 100 days plant fibers can be worked a. Etc. of fiber: Hill ( 1972 ) soft, lightweight and very close to outer! The inner bark or blast of plants distinguish the technology of splicing from draft-spun fibres and!

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